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Prof. dr. S. (Stefania) Milan

Faculty of Humanities
Departement Mediastudies
Photographer: Bram Belloni

Visiting address
  • Turfdraagsterpad 9
  • Room number: 2.23
Postal address
  • Postbus 94550
    1090 GN Amsterdam
  • About

    Stefania Milan is Professor of Critical Data Studies at the Department of Media Studies, University of Amsterdam. She is also Faculty Associate (2020-2022) at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University. University. Her work explores the interplay between digital technology and data, political participation and governance, with focus on infrastructure and agency. 

    Stefania leads the project “Citizenship and standard-setting in digital networks” (, funded by the Dutch Research Council. She is also Co-Principal Investigator in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network “Early language development in the digital age” ( In 2015-2021 she was the Principal Investigator of DATACTIVE ( and of the Algorithms Exposed (ALEX) project (, both funded by the European Research Council. 

    Stefania holds a PhD in Political and Social Science from the European University Institute (2009). Prior to joining the University of Amsterdam, she worked at, among others, the Citizen Lab (University of Toronto), Tilburg University, and the Central European University. In 2012, she founded the Data J Lab (currently inactive). In 2017-2018, she was Associate Professor (II) of Media Innovation at the University of Oslo. In 2017, she co-founded the Big Data from the South Research Initiative, investigating the impact of datafication and surveillance on communities at the margins. 

    Among others, Stefania is the author of Social Movements and Their Technologies: Wiring Social Change (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013/2016), co-author of Media/Society (Sage, 2011), and co-editor of COVID-19 from the Margins. Pandemic Invisibilities, Policies and Resistance in the Datafied Society (Institute of Network Cultures, 2021). 


  • Main research projects



    Making the hidden visible: Co-designing for public values in standard-making and governance (IN-SIGHT, 2020-2024) (NWO Responsible Innovation, grant no. MVI.19.017)

    • Prorject Leader: Stefania Milan
    • Funding: 750,000 EUR (NWO, Dutch Research Council, Research programme 'Designing for public values in a digital world')  

    While deeply woven into our everyday life, digital infrastructure—from network switches to public administration databases—is typically invisible to users. The process of standard-making, in particular, remains a blind spot. Standardization describes and uniforms a set of criteria, often of a technical nature, the associated practices and methods enabling the interoperability of networks and datasets. Standards thus mediate societal life, thus our ability to enact our citizenship and enjoy human rights in the digital age. Straddling computer science, sociology, law, and media studies, this project investigates standard-making in relation to democratic values and practices. It asks how the public sphere is governed today through the standardization of the digital and how to support societal values in the creation of standards. Specifically, it looks at standard-making as a sociotechnical practice, analyzing technology development and implementation, the related governance arrangements and legal aspects.

    This project investigates three cases of national relevance and global breadth: the development and implementation of 5th generation (5G) cellular mobile communication; the development of cybersecurity standards for the Internet of Things, and identity management standards (e.g., DigID). In so doing, the project contributes to illuminating the “wiring” of values (or lack thereof) into technical standards, the relation and the balance of power between a variety of public (e.g., states) and private actors (e.g., the industry, consumers), informal lawmaking and multistakeholder governance mechanisms. It will result in the co-design of mechanisms for technology and governance, and in standards which are “value- and rights-respecting by design”.


    Early Language Development in the Digital Age (e-LADDA, 2020-2023) (Marie Skłodowska-Curie ITN no. 857897)

    • Co-Principal Investigator: Stefania Milan
    • Funding: 3,681,552 EUR (*265,619) (Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network scheme)  

    Modern digital technologies are transforming rapidly the environment in which children are growing up and developing skills. This new digital reality has both changed the nature of the linguistic input provided to young children, but also affords new ways of interaction with communication agents, such as tablets and robots. The goal of e-LADDA is to establish whether the new and intuitive interactions afforded by digital tools impact on young children’s language development and language outcomes in a positive or adverse way. We further aim to identify exactly what factors in both the technology itself and the communication channel advance language learning and growth or may impede it. This goal will be pursued in e-LADDA from a highly interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial perspective, bridging between research disciplines and methodologies and in collaboration with industry and the non-academic public sector.


    ACES Digital Europe Hub: Building ACES clout for a sustainable European digital cloud (2021-2023)

    • Co-Principal Investigator: Stefania Milan
    • Funding: 125,000 EUR (UvA Amsterdam Center for European Studies, ACES)

    The ACES Digital Europe Hub aims to bring people together who (want to) work on the intersection of digitalization and sustainability within ACES and UvA and engage with policy-makers, businesses and civil society. It has the dual objective to: 

    1) conduct original interdisciplinary research on the case of the European politics of cloud computing and sustainable digitalization, and 

    2) create an interdisciplinary hub for research, exchange and outreach on Digital Europe and sustainable digitalization by ACES and UvA researchers--and beyond. 



    Algorithms Exposed. Investigating Automated Personalization and Filtering for Research and Activism (ALEX, 2018-2020) (ERC Proof of Concept no. 825974)

    • Principal investigator: Stefania Milan
    • Funding: 150,000 EUR (European Research Council)

    Personalization algorithms—filtering content on the basis of someone's profile—increasingly mediate the web experience of users. By forging a specific reality for each individual, they silently shape customized 'information diets': in other words, they determine which news, opinions and rumors users are exposed to. Restricting users’ possibilities, they ultimately infringe on their agency. As exposed by the recent Cambridge Analytica scandal, they are supported by questionable data sharing practices at the core of the business models of the social media industry. Yet, personalization algorithms are proprietary and thus remain inaccessible to end users. The few experiments auditing these algorithms rely on data provided by platform companies themselves. They are highly technical, hardly scalable, and fail to put social media users in the driver seat. The ALgorithms EXposed (ALEX) project aims at unmasking the functioning of personalization algorithms on social media platforms, taking Facebook as a test case. It is 'data activism' in practice, as it uses publicly available data for awareness raising and citizen empowerment. ALEX will pursue four goals: 1) software development and stabilization, building on the alpha version of (fbtrex), a working prototype of a browser extension analyzing the outcomes of Facebook's News Feed algorithm; 2) the release of two spin-off products building on fbtrex, namely AudIT, enabling researchers to do expert analysis on algorithmic biases, and RealityCheck, allowing users to monitor their own social media consumption patterns; 3) the testing the technical feasibility of exporting the ALEX approach to analyze algorithmic personalization on other platforms such as Twitter and Google; 4) the design and organization of data literacy modules on algorithmic personalization, and 5) the launch of a consultancy service to promote tool take-up and the future sustainability of the project. 


    Data activism: The politics of big data according to civil society" (DATACTIVE, 2015-2021) (ERC Starting Grant no. 639379) 

    • Principal Investigator: Stefania Milan
    • Funding: 1,500,000 EUR (European Research Council)

    With the diffusion of ‘big data’, citizens become increasingly aware of the critical role of information in modern societies. This awareness gives rise to new social practices rooted in technology and data, which I term ‘data activism’. While activists see massive data collection by governments and businesses as a challenge to civil rights, big data also offer new opportunities for collective action. This research will investigate civil society’s engagement with massive data collection, addressing three research questions: How do citizens resist massive data collection by means of technical fixes (re-active data activism)? How do social movements use big data to foster social change (pro-active data activism)? How does data activism affect the dynamics of transnational civil society, and transnational advocacy networks in particular? The project will develop a multidisciplinary conceptual framework integrating social movement studies, science and technology studies and international relations. It will analyze organizational forms, action repertoires and the enabling role of software in data activism, and will identify emerging structures and strategies of transnational advocacy networks. Data will be collected via qualitative (interviews with activists, field observations, infrastructure ethnography on software platforms) and computational methods (such as data mining in online repositories). ‬‪This research is groundbreaking in four ways: 1) by analyzing civil society’s engagement with massive data collection, it evaluates risks and promises of big data; 2) by addressing an uncharted but rapidly growing field of human action, it sets the basis for understanding future civic engagement; 3) by integrating adjacent disciplines that seldom interact, it magnifies their ability to understand the interplay between society, information, technology and power; 4) by developing dedicated data collection tools, it adds to methodological innovation in big-data analytics.

  • Publications



    • Pierson, J., Kerr, A., Robinson, S. C., Fanni, R., Steinkogler, V. E., Milan, S., & Zampedri, G. (2023). Governing artificial intelligence in the media and communications sector. Internet Policy Review, 12(1). Advance online publication. [details]



    • Irion, K., Burri, M., Kolk, A., & Milan, S. (2021). Governing “European values” inside data flows: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Internet Policy Review, 10(3). [details]
    • Kazansky, B., & Milan, S. (2021). “Bodies not templates”: Contesting dominant algorithmic imaginaries. New Media & Society, 23(2), 363-381. [details]
    • Milan, C., & Milan, S. (2021). Fighting gentrification from the boxing ring: how community gyms reclaim the right to the city. Social Movement Studies, 20(6), 722-739. Advance online publication. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2021). Big Data. In M. Baker, B. B. Blaagaard, H. Jones, & L. Pérez-González (Eds.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Citizen Media (pp. 37-42). (Critical perspectives on citizen media). Routledge. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2021). Big Data. In P. Harris, A. Bitonti, C. S. Fleisher, & A. Skorkjær Binderkrantz (Eds.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Interest Groups, Lobbying and Public Affairs (Living ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2021). Peer Production and Collective Action. In M. O'Neil, C. Pentzold, & S. Toupin (Eds.), The Handbook of Peer Production (pp. 299-310). (Handbooks in Communication and Media). Wiley Blackwell. [details]
    • Milan, S., Treré, E., & Masiero, S. (Eds.) (2021). COVID-19 from the Margins: Pandemic Invisibilities, Policies and Resistance in the Datafied Society. (Theory on Demand; Vol. 40). Institute of Network Cultures. [details]
    • Milan, S., Veale, M., Taylor, L., & Gürses, S. (2021). Promises Made to Be Broken: Performance and Performativity in Digital Vaccine and Immunity Certification. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 12(2), 382-392. [details]
    • Pelizza, A., Milan, S., & Lausberg, Y. (2021). Understanding migrants in COVID-19 counting: Rethinking the data-(in)visibility nexus. Data & Policy, 3, Article e18. [details]
    • Treré, E., & Milan, S. (2021). Perspectivas latinoamericanas sobre la datificación y la inteligencia artificial: Tradiciones, intervenciones y posibilidades. Palabra Clave, 24(3), Article e2431. [details]
    • Ververis, V., Ermakova, T., Isaakidis, M., Basso, S., Fabian, B., & Milan, S. (2021). Understanding Internet Censorship in Europe: The Case of Spain. In WebSci 2021 - Proceedings of the 13th ACM Web Science Conference (pp. 319-328). (ACM International Conference Proceeding Series). Association for Computing Machinery.
    • ten Oever, N., & Milan, S. (2021). The Making of International Communication Standards: Towards a Theory of Power in Standardization. In K. Jacobs (Ed.), Proceedings Joint 25th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference - Standardisation and Innovation - & 11th International Conference on Standardisation and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT) - The Past, Present and FUTURE of ICT Standardisation: 6-9 September 2021, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (pp. 561-580). (EURAS contributions to standardisation research; Vol. 16). Wissenschaftsverlag Mainz. [details]





    • Milan, S. (2017). Data activism as the new frontier of media activism. In P. Victor, & G. Yang (Eds.), Media Activism in the Digital Age (pp. 151-163). (Shaping Inquiry in Culture, Communication and Media Studies). Routledge. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2017). Human rights and the media/protest assemblage. In H. Tumber , & S. Waisbord (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Media and Human Rights (pp. 327-336). Routledge. [details]
    • Milan, S., & ten Oever, N. (2017). Coding and encoding rights in internet infrastructure. Internet Policy Review, 6(1). [details]
    • Züger, T., Milan, S., & Tanczer, L. M. (2017). Sand I'm Getriebe der Informationsgesellschaft: Wie digitale Technologien die Paradigmen des Zivilen Ungehorsams herausfordern und verändern. In D. Jacob, & T. Thiel (Eds.), Politische Theorie und Digitalisierung (pp. 265-295). (Internationale Politische Theorie; Vol. 5). Nomos Verlag. [details]


    • Gray, J., Bounegru, L., Milan, S., & Ciuccarelli, P. (2016). Ways of Seeing Data: Towards a Critical Literacy for Data Visualizations as Research Objects and Research Devices. In S. Kubitschko, & A. Kaun (Eds.), Innovative Methods in Media and Communication Research (pp. 227-251). Palgrave Macmillan. [details]
    • Milan, C., & Milan, S. (2016). Involving Communities as Skilled Learners: The STRAP Framework. In N. Wildermuth, & T. Ngomba (Eds.), Methodological Reflections on Researching Communication and Social Change (pp. 9-28). Palgrave Macmillan. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2016). Social Movements and Their Technologies: Wiring Social Change. - Paperback edition. (Media and Culture). Palgrave Macmillan. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2016). Liberated Technology: Inside Emancipatory Communication Activism. In E. Gordon, & P. Mihailidis (Eds.), Civic media: technology, design, practice (pp. 107-124). MIT Press. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2016). Stealing the Fire: Communication for Development from the Margins of Cyberspace. In O. Hemer, & T. Tufte (Eds.), Voice + Matter: Communication, Development and the Cultural Return (pp. 59-69). Nordicom. [details]
    • Milan, S., & van der Velden, L. (2016). The Alternative Epistemologies of Data Activism. Digital Culture & Society, 2(2), 57–74. [details]



    • Milan, S. (2013). Social Movements and Their Technologies. Wiring Social Change. (Media and Culture). Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Milan, S. (2013). Social movements and their technologies: Wiring social change. Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Milan, S. (2013). The Italian anomaly. Index on Censorship, 42(1), 12-15.
    • Milan, S. (2013). Wikileaks, anonymous, and the exercise of individuality: Protesting in the cloud. In B. Brevini, A. Hintz, & P. McCurdy (Eds.), Beyond WikiLeaks: Implications for the Future of Communications, Journalism and Society (pp. 191-208). Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Milan, S., & Hintz, A. (2013). Networked Collective Action and the Institutionalized Policy Debate: Bringing Cyberactivism to the Policy Arena? Policy and Internet, 5(1), 7-26.
    • della Porta, D., Reiter, H., Andretta, M., Milan, S., & Rossi, F. (2013). Desperately seeking politics: Political attitudes of participants in three demonstrations for social justice in Italy. Mobilization, 17(3), 349-361.


    • Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Milan, S. (2012). Media/society: industries, images, and audiences. - 4th ed. Sage.
    • Della Porta, D., Reiter, H., Andretta, M., Milan, S., & Rossi, F. (2012). Desperately seeking politics: Political attitudes of participants in three demonstrations for worker's rights in Italy. Mobilization, 17(3), 349-361.
    • Hintz, A., & Milan, S. (2012). Struggling for open information environments: Civil society initiatives for media policy change. In Proceedings of the 2012 iConference: Culture, Design, Society, iConference 2012 (pp. 325-331). (ACM International Conference Proceeding Series). Association for Computing Machinery.
    • Milan, S., & Hadl, G. (2012). Government change and policy continuity. A case study of policy on civil society media in Japan. Annual Review of the Institute for Advanced Social Research, 7, 17-32.



    • Hintz, A., & Milan, S. (2009). At the Margins of Internet Governance: Grassroots Tech Groups and Communication Policy. International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 5(1-2), 23-38.
    • Hintz, A., & Milan, S. (2009). Movimenti sociali e governance della comunicazione globale: la sfida della partecipazione nei processi decisionali transnazionali. Partecipazione e conflitto, 2, 111-134.
    • Hintz, A., & Milan, S. (2009). «We Wanted to Do It Ourselves»: I techies antagonisti nella comunicazione digitale. Quaderni di Sociologia, 49, 43-60.
    • Milan, S. (2009). Communication for development in practice: a four-step path to implement community media needs in development projects. Development in Practice, 19(4-5), 598-609.


    • Milan, S. (2008). What makes you happy? Insights into feelings and muses of community radio practitioners. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 5(1), 25-43.


    • Hintz, A., & Milan, S. (2007). Towards a new vision for communication governance? Civil Society Media at the World Social Forum and the World Summit on the Information Society. Communication for Development and Social Change, 1, 1-23.


    • Milan, S. (2006). Communication Civil Society: participation as the main benchmark of Civil Society Media. The case of the third World Social Forum. Redes.Com. Revista de Estudio para el Desarrollo Social de la Comunicacion, 14(2), 241-264.
    • Milan, S. (2006). Democrazia/e e democrazia/e della comunicazione: mediattivismo tra esperimenti di emancipazione e campagne di riforma. Rassegna italiana di Sociologia, 2006(4), 557-584.
    • Milan, S. (2006). Medios comunitarios y regulación. Una perspectiva de comunicación para el desarrollo. Investigacion y Desarrollo, 14(2), 268-291.


    • Mattelart, T., Hong, Y., Milan, S., Thussu, D. K., & Wasserman, H. (2024). International communication: On the significance of borders in the digital borderless world. Communication and the Public.



    • Milan, S. (2020). Techno-solutionism and the standard human in the making of the COVID-19 pandemic. Big Data & Society, 7(2). Advance online publication. [details]
    • Milan, S. (2020). [Review of: D.J. Hess (2016) Undone Science: Social Movements, Mobilized Publics, and Industrial Transitions]. Technology and Culture, 61(1), 371-373. [details]
    • Pierson, J., Robinson, S. C., Boddington, P., Chazerand, P., Kerr, A., Milan, S., Verbeek, F., Kutterer, C., Nerantzi, E., & Aconstantinesei, I. C. (2020). AI4People - AI in Media and Technology Sector: Opportunities, Risks, Requirements and Recommendations. Atomium - European Institute for Science, Media and Democracy (EISMD). [details]




    • Milan, S. (2016). Response to Slavko Splichal’s “Dialogue with History". In W. A. Meier (Ed.), Abbruch – Umbruch – Aufbruch: Globaler Medienwandel und lokale Medienkrisen (pp. 31-34). Nomos. [details]


    • Milan, S. (2014). The ethics of social movement research. In D. della Porta (Ed.), Methodological Practices in Social Movement Research (pp. 446-464). Oxford University Press.



    • Beraldo, D., Airoldi, M., van Haperen, S., & Milan, S. (2023). Algorithms as Cultural Objects: mapping algorithmic imaginaries on Twitter. Abstract from V-Data final conference.


    • Beraldo, D., & Milan, S. (2022). Data in Movement: The Shifting Space of Social Movements. Abstract from the 72nd annual conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), 26-30 May 2022, Paris, France.
    • Beraldo, D., Airoldi, M., van Haperen, S., & Milan, S. (2022). Algorithms as Online Discourse. Exploring Topic Modeling and Network Analysis. Abstract from the 72nd annual conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), 26-30 May 2022, Paris, France.


    Media appearance

    Journal editor


    • Irion, K. (organiser), Kolk, A. (organiser), Oprescu, A. (organiser) & Milan, S. (organiser) (21-3-2024 - 22-3-2024). Sustainable Digitalization in Europe, Amsterdam. Digitalisation in Europe is in full swing and increasingly of strategic importance for the European project. According to the European Commission (…) (organising a conference, workshop, ...).



    • ten Oever, N. (2020). Wired norms: Inscription, resistance, and subversion in the governance of the Internet infrastructure. [Thesis, fully internal, Universiteit van Amsterdam]. [details]



    This list of publications is extracted from the UvA-Current Research Information System. Questions? Ask the library or the Pure staff of your faculty / institute. Log in to Pure to edit your publications. Log in to Personal Page Publication Selection tool to manage the visibility of your publications on this list.
  • Ancillary activities
    • Berkman K Centre for Internet & Society
      Faculty Associate for 2020/2021, 2021/2022, 2022/2023.
    • European University Institute
      Research Associate, Chair Artificial Intelligence & Democracy